Psychosocial Development——社会心理发展

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楼主 2019-06-24 10:43:34
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今日发布的短文将分为两部分,第一部分为社会心理学,第二部分为世界历史,该两部分的内容是完全独立不同的,对历史有兴趣的伙伴们可阅读第二部分。


另外,社会心理的发育分为八大阶段,今日放出的是前三阶段。


感谢各位留步阅读哦。  





Part I Psychosocial Development——社会心理发展

 

1. Psychosocial development is divided into 8 stages by ErikHomberger Erikson. The first stage is about the confliction between trust and mistrust.

 

社会心理的发展过程由Erik Homberger Erikson分为八大阶段。第一阶段的主题是信任与怀疑两者间的相互冲突。

 

2. Within the first year of life, the infant forms basic trust and basic mistrust. The sense of trust indicates that the infants, they believe someone is reliable who will meet their requirements. Trust is supported by good parenting with great care.

 

一岁的时候宝宝在心理上形成了基本信任和基本怀疑。信任感表示了宝宝们对某些人的信任,宝宝们相信那些人会满足他们的需求。信任感往往在父母的悉心呵护下而产生。

 

3. During the first stage, the infants are looking forward to receiving parent’s care, and they connect themselves with the world through tactile sense, visual function and so on.

 

在第一阶段的时候,宝宝们向往着能够获得父母的关爱,并且宝宝们通过触觉、视觉等来将自己与外界进行联系。

 

4. Basic mistrust will arise when the infants feel that the outside world does not give the response to their needs. In part, mistrust is necessary for people’s development because the environment where people encounter is not always trustworthy. Mistrust helps people to adapt themselves to the changing situations.

 

基本怀疑将会因宝宝们的需求未得到满足的时候而产生。在某种程度上,基本怀疑对于人类的发展是必不可缺的,因为人们在与外界接触时所遇到的事物并非所有都是能够被信赖的。怀疑可以帮助人们适应不断变化的环境。

 

5. The ability to trust others is essential for people to engender happiness for themselves.

 

拥有信任他人的能力可以帮助人们产生一种幸福感。

 

6. During the second year of life, the sense of autonomy is incubated in the toddlers’ minds. They want to control their musculature and relationships with others. If parents do not support the toddler’s development during this stage, a sense of shame and self-doubt will be created. Certainly, shame and doubt are necessary to exist since they are good for maintaining good social order and health.

 

两岁的时候,自治感(拥有自主权)开始在学步儿童的意识中诞生。初学走路的孩子们开始想要自主控制自己的肌肉组织,并且他们开始想要自主管理与他人间的关系。

 

7. Around 4 and 5 years old, children begin to think what kind of person they want to be. They are curious about unknowns and they can bother others physically and verbally. Guiding children to explore the world with patience will make children initiative. Conversely, hampering children’s curiosity leads them to feel guilty and such an act is harmful to the development of children's personality.

 

在四五岁的时候,儿童们开始思考/决定他们未来想要成为怎样的人。他们对于未知事物充满好奇并且他们会以肢体和言语的方式打扰他人的生活。以耐心的心态指导孩子探索外部世界将会使孩子们具有主动性。相反地,阻碍打压孩子们的好奇天性将会使孩子们感到愧疚,并且这种粗暴的方式将有碍孩子们健全的性格发展。

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Part II Global history

 

选自:McWilliams, W. C., & Piotrowski, H. (1990). The world since1945: a history of international relations. Lynne Rienner Publishers.

 

1. The war in Europe began with overwhelming German victories. In1939, Germany and Soviet Union made concerted effort to strike the Polish Army and segment Poland.

 

欧洲战场以德国压倒性的胜利为开端,在1939年,德国与前苏联共同进攻波兰军队并瓜分波兰。

 

2. In 1940, German marched to Denmark, Norway, Low Countries and France.The German army drove British Expeditionary Force back.

 

1940年,德国进军丹麦、挪威、低地国家和法国。德国军队迫使英国远征军战线后退。

 

3. On 22 June 1941, Germany attacked the Soviet Union. After victories, Nazi Germany slaughtered Jewish population of German-occupied Europe.

 

1941年6月22日,德国进攻前苏联,在胜利后,德国纳粹屠杀了在德国占领的欧洲地区的犹太人。

 

4. The wave of German victories began to have a recession at the end of 1942. The Soviet triumph at Stalingrad was both a psychological and military victory. In 1942, America, Britain and the Soviet Union collaboratively produced more than 100000 aircraft against Germany’s 15000.

 

德国的胜利狂潮于1942年末开始衰退。前苏联于斯大林格勒的一场胜战是一场心理与军事上的胜利。同年,美英与前苏联共同生产了多于100000架飞机来对抗德国军队的15000架飞机。

 

5. The final stages of the war, from 1943 to 1945, the Soviets occupied large areas of Central and Eastern Europe. In 1944, Britain and America won the decisive Battle of Normandy.

 

战争的最后阶段为1943——1945,前苏联占领了中欧和东欧的绝大部分地区。1944年,英美两国取得了诺曼底这一关键战争的胜利。  


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